International Economics

Global Capitalism, in the Age of No Capital

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DollarsThis piece began out of musings on how the current world economic system, could be overturned (or if we were starting from a clean slate) beginning with a new system. to develop a system, that serves everyone.

Some people have been speaking of the end of Capitalism, as though what we have now is Capitalism.

(Like HERE in the UK Guardian)

But, I just think many people don’t really understand what Capitalism is…

The word, “Capitalism”,  derives from the word “Capital”.  This word is just a posher, more accountant friendly version of the word for “savings”.  And to have savings, you have to have a monetary system, that means that the money in everyday use (currency) retains its value over very long periods of time, and is garnered from the excess production by workers, or businesses who save that money.

This money can then be pooled, typically by Banks in individual savings accounts, to allow larger projects to be funded, and corporations to borrow this, to grow their business, or to finance those larger projects.

Of course, there can be savings made by corporations too, who produce in excess of current demand, and this “Retained Earnings” to use accountant speak, is then available for investment in new products or services, which adds value to the business, and enriches the lives of the many.

But, going back over 45 years to the 1970s, when I was a teenager, and just starting out in life, there were two forms of accounts. The type of account where money was deposited for immediate use (a current account) and money that was “saved for a rainy day” and was typically deposited into a “Savings Account”.  In some instances, these were 90 day accounts.  These accounts paid a higher rate of interest, than normal savings accounts, which were called “time deposits”, because these funds were deposited for a period of time – in this case 90 days.

That meant that the depositor, had to give 90 days’ notice, to get access to their savings, or forfeit interest earned.

However, back on 15th August, 1971, the last link between real money (Gold and Silver) was severed, when Richard Milhous Nixon, President of the U.S., closed the “Gold Window” temporarily, which meant that foreign nations could no longer demand Gold in exchange for dollars at the Bretton Woods rate of $35.00 for 1 oz of Gold.

That day ushered in Corporataucracy, though we didn’t realise it at the time.  In a world where a Bank can just press a few keys on a computer, or have its Central Bank (owned by these ultra-large corporate banks) create funds out of thin air by “Computer Keystrokes”, or the “Printing Press”, the large corporations and governments, can borrow increasingly larger sums of currency, without others having to make those savings out of current production or consumption.   This disconnect, means that current consumption, does not have to be forgone to pay for some new project, which reduces the need for savings – but also reduces interest rates, as capital is no longer needed, but it also tends over time to lead to increasing concentration of the means of production, into the hands of those with access to this line of credit, and the desire for huge capital sums.

The rise of these mega-corporations like Apple, Google, Facebook, Uber, Walmart, and here in the UK, BAe, TESCO, Sainsbury’s, Asda, and Morrisons, have all risen, by building large concentrated infrastructure, which is capital intensive.  Most of these corporations can borrow large sums cheaply, because their revenue streams, are constant, and thus they quickly create surpluses in their respective bank accounts.

For these large corporations, that money going into their current accounts, which is vulnerable to loss – IF – their Bank has financial difficulties so needs to be used or given back to shareholders, but is vulnerable, until such time..  So for many companies, this almost forces them to invest in newer premises, and growth in newer overseas markets, to use that currency, or risk financial loss as it sits there earning next to zero interest.

The alternative would be to return that surplus to the investors, which would raise share-prices, and distribute income, but in a world where money is too cheap because it is limited only by the bank’s willingness to hit the right keys on their computers, corporations who have large and dominant shareholdings by the families that created them, have little need for raising risk capital from shareholders, and thus the risk is transferred from the company, (and its shareholders) to the lending institution, while the share price rises, increase the power and wealth of these family shareholders. VW/Audi, Porsche, TESCO, Morrisons, and Sainsbury, are all businesses, where the original family owners are still large shareholders of the business. This is particularly true where the huge sums borrowed jeopardize the stability of the Bank doing the lending and a Black Swan event places a strain on the Banking system.

This risk, is later transferred to the State as Banks use their own freely created Capital, to acquire other smaller banks, consolidating markets, and then when they become systemic, they transfer that risk to the tax-payers as they become “Too Big to Fail”, “Too Big to Jail”.

I believe, that a number of events in the economic, political and financial spheres, may be about to undermine this.

Banking – Politics – Economics –  Changes Making the World a Different Place…

The rise of Islam, as I mentioned HERE: , threatens the wider economy, as religious doctrines amongst its followers, limit the number and range of economic activities which in themselves, could destabilise the western world’s economies to the point of failure.

However, this post is about the other events.

Bullion and Bitcoin.

The last eight years, has seen the rise of Crypto-currencies, like Bitcoin, and a concern among many about the extra $3.5Trillion, put into the monetary system, by the Federal Reserve, driving the rise in demand for precious metals Gold and Silver.

Bitcoin, and other crypto-currencies, could be about to usurp the power of the Bankers (See: My Post on this topic HERE , which if it occurs, means that because the Banks can’t just lend more and more money (currency) into existence, they have to earn the trust of depositors, and use their limited funds wisely. But inevitably, these inventive Bankers will use their political influence to ensure that they get the outcome they need. Probably outlawing crypto-currency trading, and using it for certain purposes.

The East, has for the last one and a half decades, been accumulating Gold in Central Bank Vaults, while the West, has been ridding itself of this substance, that Keynes according to legend discussed as a “barbarous relic”.

However, Gold as the final arbiter of the value of money (See This:  or This – ) can stem the flow of funds to large corporations, who would have to rely on available funds from savers, and increased economic activity, would have to produce those surpluses, which means the increasingly automated world, will need more savers, driving up real wages, to buy the products and services of automation, their prices would need to be more competitive too growing sales, and as Henry Ford recognised, salaries would need to rise encouraging savings to accrue.

And for those past the first flush of youth, or perhaps in retirement, the savings rates paid would go up, and that would help those having to live on retirement incomes.

But, it might also mean,  that for the first time in a long time, America, would not be able to rampage around the world, laying down the law, and interfering in all those countries, that require expensive military hardware, that the U.S.  can just buy with the funny money, that is hot off the computer or printing presses.

Mike Maloney’s take on things is that the printing presses will drive the world to take up the SDR sooner rather than later. The SDR, for those who don’t know it, is the “Special Drawing Right”. It was first created by the IMF during the 1970s, as a certificate for a basket of the major currencies. And the Yuan, has just been added to that basket, but the Chinese are pushing to add Gold to it too, and that will drive demand for Gold.

You can see Mike Maloney with David Morgan, precious metals dealer, and financial guru, discussing matters here:

And for when this happens, Silver will ride on Gold’s coat-tails, But the rush for silver will probably overtake the price rise in gold, by a factor of 5 to 1… And this explains WHY…

The Collapse (and Renaissance?) of the West – Part 2

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Death by a Thousand Cuts?Threat-Image

To read the background to this piece (Part 1) go here…

The History of Islam, is the history of strife in and around the middle-east and Mediterranean Sea. Wherever Islam, has butted up against other religions, and cultures, there has been war, battles and strife.

In recent years, in the 1990s the war in the former Yugoslavia, was caused largely due to the influence of the U.S., which encouraged and provoked unrest, to bring the Socialist Republic, into the western sphere of influence, as Slovenia in the North, and Croatia in the North West seceded from the state that General Josip Tito had unified during the 1940s, at the end of the Second World War.. And of course if you remember, your history, the first World War was started in that region, when a Bosnian Serb called Gavrilo Princip killed Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife in Sarajevo, Bosnia.

But what few in the News media tell you, is that in Albania which sits alongside the former Yugoslavia, (and Kosovo) the majority of the population are Muslims – roughly 55% in Albania. The other Balkan States are a mixture of Slavs – Catholics originally from Northern Europe, and Greek Orthodox.

After the war began, those ethnic Serbians began ethnically cleansing Muslim Kosovans in the Moldovan region. – when 8,000 were killed in a genocide – remember Srebrenica? But, although Albania, has applied to join the EU., it is the poorest country in Europe, and if it IS granted membership, we are likely to see a tide of people leaving to find work elsewhere in the EU.

So, what does this have to do with today?

The wars in Libya, Iraq and Syria, to overthrow those hard-liners in power, is according to some, because those nations challenged the American dominated International Financial System, because these nations refused to have a Central Bank controlled by the Rothschild controlled IMF. In Iraq’s case, Sadam Hussein, began to sell oil for Euros. While, in 1998, it’s Saudi neighbours were obliged to sell their oil in Dollars, When Sadam Hussein fell, one of the first things to change was the oil price – back to dollars…

The Saudis, have a long-standing agreement – probably more like a veiled threat – that the U.S. would defend the Saudi Kingdom, from all threats as long as the House of Saud sold its oil in dollars, – and as we know back in 1974, when the agreement was negotiated between Henry Kissinger, and the Saudi ruler – that potential threat, was the Soviets, who were considered the biggest threat.

Libya too, threatened the dollar hegemony, when Muammar al-Qadaffi, began to build a consensus for a golden Dinar, of known size and weight, to be used in trade throughout Northern Africa. The Gold which he had traded oil for, has of course, mysteriously disappeared from the nation’s coffers in the aftermath of that revolution.

Syria’s Basher al-Assad, also judged a threat to western efforts, is also allied with the Russians, who have long had a naval base on the Syrian Mediterranean coast, and as we saw recently, Russia supported the President, to fight the CIA backed IS, who were encouraged to push for a new caliphate. But in reality, this was to scupper the deal between Assad, and Iran to pipe Iranian Gas from the Persian Gulf, where a huge gas field, has long been known about. Whereas, the Americans would prefer if Saudi and American oil interests exploited that gas and piped it to Europe.

But the oil wealth and the rising religious fervour in that part of the region, has been cause for a “Hijra” to be called.

The word Hijra (emigration) relates back to 622, when Mohammad and his followers migrated from Mecca to Yathrib (now Medina) and the 5+ million Syrians, Libyans, Somalis. Eritraens and other African nationals, that have faced the vagaries of the Mediterranean Sea in small boats and inflatables seem to think, that Europe in general, and Britain in particular is their future, but how many of them, are not Asylum Seekers, not refugees, but perhaps bear a cultural hatred borne of their religious texts, or teachings. It has been both a push from Islamic Nations, and a pull from Western European nations with birth-rates falling and so low that even the current population levels in Europe couldn’t be maintained. The objective of the emigration by the clerics is clear to make Europe an Islamic continent, and eventually the world.

Britain faces a unique position, because if your first language is not English, your second language, usually is… And that goes for 70% of the world’s population. And between China, and the Atlantic Ocean, just India, and Britain speak English widely.

With Muslim families typically having four or more children, and under Sharia Law, upto four wives, those European nations with large immigrant populations, will by 2050 have a huge and quickly rising Islamic population. The economic consequences of such a large contingent, demanding Sharia law, will if allowed, cause a major headache for Western Economies – even to the point of economic collapse.

How so? I hear you ask…

The Islamic faith is not just a faith, but a political philosophy too, and the consequences of such are not often discussed.

If you like your Traditional English Breakfast, with its Pork Sausages, and English or Danish Bacon, what will you do when Pork Farming is outlawed? Where will those few producers of Pork Dripping, Lard, and other Charcuterie producers find their income? Where will you go to dine, and have a glass or two of wine when alcohol is no longer permitted? What will happen to the few British Pubs that remain, when they too close for lack of demand or by religious diktat? And the Breweries that supply them?

Where will we go for summer holidays, when women are denied the chance to travel alone, And where will you women, wear revealing bathing costumes – bikinis, lingerie, or provocative clothing? What will happen to the fashion industry as restrictive dress codes challenge modern fashion elements, and what will publishers do when fashion magazines and designers are no longer needed? Where too those workers of publishing houses, whose purchasers of the likes of Razzle, Cosmopolitan, and Hello, are restricted in what they can publish, and advertise?

Where too will women work, if they are restricted from studying, and who will employ them, when/if they are so poorly educated, they lack sufficient skills except to pour coffee, and what will happen to the ham-burger suppliers and the chains of stores that cook them? Or if the Saudi interpretation that restricts women from even driving without a male chaperone? And what will women do, if the rape of a woman, requires four witnesses before it would be proved? While the punishment for such – unless proved – is “stoning”, or beheading of the woman!

As a recent video showed, on, young women of 18 and below being auctioned on the streets of London, by men wearing Arab Islamic dress, with arguments by Islamic preachers suggesting that taking a wife as young as one is within the teaching of Islam, and is acceptable, what does that say about how women are valued in society?

The economic consequences of having 50% of the population set-back more than 100 years, and essentially being restricted to the hearth and home once more by a patriarchal society is dire. Women’s rights would be set back a century. Who will staff the hospitals, nursing homes, and hotels – presupposing anyone would want to visit a nation that supported such hard-line policies. Who will work as P.A.’s to senior executives in the few corporations of any significance? What will those female aspirants to parliament do, when they are not allowed to engage in public life? Where will the future Margaret Thatchers, Theresa Mays, and Barbara Castles of these islands come from?

The western economies, with their liberties, which were hard won over many centuries, needs to beware of the Trojan Horse within, and to allow liberties to be set back, by a Liberal elite who have tolerated two classes of citizens to live in these nations is remiss at the least – those who follow, abide and vote for the policies, that our western societies believe in, are tolerant, while the other class, who use that tolerance to restrict those who live within their strictly enforced religious enclaves, are Fascistic. This, as other you-tube videos shows, non-muslims are being chased by physical presence from the streets where large Islamic populations live, and where there are protests against this, frequently this results in physical and emotional abuse, particularly of women, by young Islamic males.

If we do not address this growing division, by strongly enforcing the laws (and liberties) of the land, the consequences will be as stated – dire. As multi-culturism has been forced on a largely unsuspecting population, there are those segments of world society, that still insist – “There is only one way, and that way is theirs.”

But, what is also concerning, is that many followers of Islam, believe that non-muslims are second-class individuals. These hard-liners follow the strict interpretation of the Qu’ran. These are the people whose dress code and behaviour, are a throw-back to the 7th century, which is, and will be a source of division, and eventually war if we do not confront these sterotypes.

A photograph of a woman ballerina – posted by Alicia Keys on her twitter account – wearing a Burka, with her bare leg thrust forward provocatively, promoting equality, received short shrift from many Muslim women, who are forced by their patriarchal overlords to wear the garment.


Will this be a feminist issue? At the moment, those on the left seem more concerned with religious equality, rather than gender equality. If people do not awaken from this slumber, and this naiveté, there will come a day, when the realisation dawns, they were wrong, and that will be their new shocking reality.

So, in conclusion, will the imposition of Sharia Law , or even large populations of Muslims in the nation cause economic dislocation and collapse hinted at in the title?

Even the technological revolution waiting in the wings of Artificial Intelligence, and 3D technology – 3D printing, and 3D video and Image projection through holographic systems becoming commonplace, will perhaps not create sufficient new wealth and new jobs to support the rising number of people with little or nothing to contribute, save their muscle, and/or religious fervour.

And the rising demands on the Social Security budget, will cause the population to question who, what when and where social security is given.


The Collapse (and Renaissance?) of the West

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– April 2nd, 2017

This piece is in Two Parts – Part Two is Here

The Sword and The Book – Instruments of War.

I woke up the other morning, sweating, heart pounding and breathing heavy. I didn’t know what time it was, but I knew it was early. I daren’t put the light on, or even check the clock by pressing the illuminate button, because I knew it would wake my wife. So I ended up lying there, tossing and turning, thoughts churning over in my mind.

I’d been dreaming, and the dream was one of those were you end up fighting some unknown foe. I quickly realised who I had been fighting, in this somnabulistic nightmare.

I’ve been studying, and watching a huge number of videos on Islam, and the history of it over the last 1400 years recently, and this must have been playing on my mind.

Of course this blog is not normally dedicated to religious topics, as it is usually too contentious, and people get upset when you challenge their deeply held beliefs, even if you use rationale and logic to do so – or especially because you do.

But, as I began thinking about the theology, I realised that there are economic consequences, quite serious consequences. I realised that there are monetary and economic forces at work, so I also began studying the history of the man who became the prophet, that so many revere in the world, and casting my analytical eye over the whole piece, reaching some surprising conclusions.

Some History

I was surprised to learn, that an Islamic Caliphate had existed pretty much since the death of Mohammad in 632 A.D., until 1924, when the last of the major European economies, rid itself of Islam, at least in its political role in the state. But, that at its height, it was bigger than the Roman Empire, of which we learned so much as children. Why weren’t we taught that?

The turnaround in fortunes began as Europe began to be more economic than spiritual, and the breakaway from the Papacy, by King Henry VIII, for his own ends, began the change.

That was followed by the reformation, when the schism in the Roman Catholic Church began, set in motion by Martin Luther, when he wrote: “The Ninety-Five Theses”.

This was reinforced by the renaissance, when science began to become the major driver of thinking, and the improvements in productivity this allowed, coupled with the movements from the countryside to the towns began to occur. The Gutenberg Press spread the word far and wide as cheap books became commonplace.

Europe expanded through education and enlightenment as European ships set sail towards the New World, to return, with wondrous trinkets from Native Americans, and fortunes in Gold and Silver as these new lands were discovered, explored and plundered. As mechanisation took hold, this cemented Europeans in the ascendancy as they could develop stronger economies, and build well-funded armies.

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, was the founder and first leader of modern day Turkey and established the state, after the fall of the Ottoman Empire in the early 1920s when he created the Grand National Assembly on 23rd April 1920. He had studied Western nations, during his extensive military career, and began to build his new nation, on more secular lines.

Mustafa Kemal fought a final battle with the Islamic Caliphate Army, shortly after the signing of the Treaty of Sèvres, which was imposed by the allies on the Ottoman Turks, and by September 18, 1922, the occupying armies were expelled. On November 1, the newly founded parliament formally abolished the Sultanate, ending 623 years of Ottoman rule. The Treaty of Lausanne of July 24, 1923, led to the international recognition of the sovereignty of the newly formed “Republic of Turkey” as the successor state of the Ottoman Empire, and the republic was officially proclaimed on October 29, 1923, in the new capital of Ankara. Mustafa Kemal became the republic’s first President which finally broke up the Ottoman Empire.

On 1 March 1924, at the Grand National Assembly, (GNA) Mustafa Kemal said: The religion of Islam will be elevated if it will cease to be a political instrument, as had been the case in the past.

On 3 March 1924, the caliphate was officially abolished and its powers within Turkey were transferred to the GNA. Other Muslim nations debated the validity of Turkey’s unilateral abolition of the caliphate as they decided whether they should confirm the Turkish action or appoint a new caliph. The only political party of the GNA was the “Peoples Party”, founded by Mustafa Kemal on 9 September 1923.

He forbade women to wear the Hijab, ensured they got an education, by establishing free compulsory primary schooling and forbade men to wear the beard.

He made Turkey a secular state and gradually its importance in the region grew as its economy and population did, aided by membership of NATO and acting as a bulwark against soviet expansion, which meant American money went there.

The West (in the guise of the EU) dangled the carrot of membership, but the rhetoric of recent months, and the animosity between Muslim President Recep Erdoghan and the Netherlands, seems to have put paid to that – at least for a while. Turkey despite shooting down a Russian MIG fighter jet over Northern Syria, as it apparently ventured into Turkish airspace seems to have patched things up with Russia, as they apparently were co-aligned in fighting so-called “Terrorist groups”

In Russia’s case, they were fighting anyone who threatened their relationship with Basher Al-Assad, which is largely because if he falls, Russia loses one of its allies in the region, and probably the warm water port it has in Northern Syria. Turkey, meanwhile is intent on fighting the Kurds who have been pushing to have a homeland in South-Eastern Turkey, and Northern Iraq for decades, and Kurdish oil, would give them money and influence, which Turkey is wary of having, on its south-eastern flank.

The Tribes of Islam – Sunni and Shia, have been fighting amongst themselves for domination ever since the demise of Mohammad. Mohammad’s father-in-law – Abu Bhaqhar, and his cousin – Ali ibn Abi Talib, began feuding over who should succeed him, after his death by poisoning, in 632, and the interpretation of the religion, and these two strands of thought have been fighting for dominance ever since.

But one of the things that has perplexed me over the time I have been thinking about this problem, is that if a person is praying 5 times a day, how much time they have for study of scientific, and other critical thinking subjects. In fact according to one source, I was surprised to learn, that the whole of the Islamic world (of 1.4 billion souls) translates fewer books each year than tiny Liechtenstein.

But, the Islamic world has had two events happen, to help them:

In the 1920s, oil was found, in the Kingdom of Saudi-Arabia, and the Arab-American Oil Company (Aramco) was established, before it was nationalised some years later… This with the establishment of the Petro-Dollar system, by Henry Kissinger back in the 70s, gave the House of Saud, rising importance in the world, as dollars flowed into the Kingdom’s coffers. That immense wealth went into Palaces, British and American Defence Technology as the Kingdom purchased British Fighter Jets, and American missiles and equipment, which has provided the Kingdom, with an excuse to spend their wealth, and recycle some of that wealth into British and American jobs.

Behind the scenes, the Sunni dominated House of Saud, and the Shia dominated establishment in Iran, have been feuding: funding and promoting unrest throughout the region for decades. Whoever wins that battle, wins the battle for dominance in the whole of the Islamic world, and therein, lies the root of the problem for the west.

Religious Fervour

Back in the 70s, two important things happened… The oil-crisis, brought about by rising world demand, due to an increasing dependence on oil and oil derivative products such as plastics, fertilizers, chemicals, paints, and the pharmaceuticals industry etc; drove the price of oil, as it rose from circa $1.60 per barrel in 1969, to $41.00 per barrel briefly in 1980, and that meant huge amounts of wealth transferred from the west to the oil producing nations (Largely OPEC).

The second thing that happened was, that the ruler in Iran in 1978 was the U.S. installed Mohammad Reza Pahlavi – the last Shah of Iran. But a new twist was about to happen. On January 16, 1979, Pahlavi left Iran after a citizen’s revolt, and two weeks later, on February 1, the Ayatollah Khomeini returned to Iran. Khomeini had been exiled to various countries, including France, where he made several contentious speeches. He was arrested and exiled to Iraq, then Turkey and finally Paris, France in 1964, but shortly after his arrival back in Iran, on February 11, 1979, Khomeini appointed his first own prime minister, Medhi Bazargan. On March 30, 1979 a referendum took place in Iran and as a result, the monarchy was replaced with an Islamic Republic. After the Islamic Revolution, Khomeini became Supreme Leader of Iran.

As a young man, Khomeini, studied in Qom, an Iranian city, where he received a traditional religious education, but Khomeini, also had other plans. Wiley as a fox, Khomeini – intended to bring Islam to the world. The oil wealth, would allow him and his government to spread the word, and buy the support of those around him. Just as the House of Saud, and the hundreds of Royal Princes do in the Kingdom of Saudi-Arabia.

These two almost tribal nations, one espousing Sunni Islam, the other espousing the more traditional Shia, eye each other across the Persian Gulf. The Straits of Hormuz a narrow waterway, as narrow as the Dover Straits, separates the two nations. And through those straits, 40% of the world’s oil travels. If any one of these two nations decided to close the straits, oil would hit $200 barrel within days at soonest, and weeks at most.

The other choke point – The Baab-el-Mandeb (The Gates of Tears) sits on the other side of the Saudi Peninsula and allows entry to the Red Sea, and the short-route to Europe through the Suez Canal.

In 1973, Israel, Egypt, Jordan, and Syria went to war for the second time, the Egyptian President – Anwar Sadat, and Basher Assad of Syria attempted to take back the land won by Israel in the six days war in 1967.

Oil was hovering around $2.30 a barrel. Just days later, while the Israelis, the Syrians, the Jordanians and the Egyptians were still slugging it out acorss the Sinai Peninsula, The Libyan Colonel, who had taken power just four years before, and had nationalised the Libyan oil-fields, and their production technology, raised the price of oil heading to Italy. First to $3., then four, then six, and finally in one final flourish to $11.69. The war lasted almost three weeks, before a UN resolution and a threat by Leonid Breshneyev Soviet President, to put troops on the ground unless the U.S. did, brought hostilities to a swift halt. the War had lasted from October 6-24, 1973.

Reports emerged later that at the time Iran had charged as much as $17 per barrel during the crisis briefly. The small Islamic nations had risked everything against the Western Powers, and survived. The U.S., Italy, France, Germany, former Empire holder Britain, she who had controlled 50% of the earth’s land-mass at one time, were reduced to penury. No armies arrived, no foot-soldiers, no planes bombed their fields, and no jack-boots patrolled their streets, nor gun-boats patrolled their shores. These tiny Arab nations had stood up to the great western powers, and were emboldened. That winter, brought a severe crisis, in Britain, as inflation would reach 26.9%. Mineworkers went on strike, and then power workers. The UK government of Ted Heath was forced to bring in the three-day week to conserve fuel, and council workers joined the fray.

Heath announced a snap election for February 1974, and asked the question – “Who governs Britain?” the electorate answered not so emphatically – “Not you.”. The election was insufficient to give Labour a full mandate, and a brief pact between Labour’s Harold Wilson, and the Liberal’s Jeremy Thorpe maintained things until a second election in October that year, gave Labour a slight majority.

The Americans, had their own crisis that year end, as cars queued at gas-stations for $5.00 worth of fuel, and gas-stations ran out of fuel causing frustration at the Arab nations.
But what does all that have to do with us?

Find out in Part Two


Monopoly Money…

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I am reminded of my days as a child, playing Monopoly… Of course, the company that manufactured the board game: Parkers – or in the UK – Waddingtons – produced many versions for major markets. America, had its version, based on New York, Britain’s version used London, and Canada, Australia, and New Zealand – the rest of the five eyes – no doubt had their versions too. All told there were 103 versions (at least according to Wikipedia), so I suppose most people over 30, will have played it or seen it at some point in their life.

I was reminded of it, because of the new British £1.00 coin, which is a bi-metallic 12 sided beast, that reminded me of the coins that were made of plastic in the above mentioned game.

The new coin, according to several sources: “has a hidden security feature to make it difficult to counterfeit, but officials at the Royal Mint have not released any further details.”

“It is thought to involve material inside the coin itself which can be detected when electronically scanned by coin-counting or payment machines,”

“Three years in the making and costing £2 million to develop, it inserts a physical security layer within each coin that allows for thousands of coins to be scanned and verified in a matter of seconds, quickly separating the real coins from the duff ones.”

Of course the British Fiver (£5.00 note) is now made of plastic, and incorporates security features to make it more durable, and difficult for counterfeiters to produce without it being obvious. By October this year, the older paper based Fiver will be obsolete, and apart from the nice shiney new ones that made it into envelopes to be stored in drawers and cupboards for children when they were younger they will no doubt like most currencies of yesteryear, disappear into the realms of history.

That is a feature of all currencies… NOTE: A currency is for “current” transactions…

Money is a different beast altogether.

For anything to serve as Money, it has to have 7 functions. (Mike Maloney has a wonderful series of videos on You-tube, that tell the History of Money, should you wish to do further swotting up and if I were to watch or recommend just one, or two, I’d start with part 4)

Money has to be: A Medium of Exchange, A Unit of Account, Portable, Durable, Divisible, Fungible and a Store of Value.

Most of those are obvious, though Fungible might confuse a few people. Fungible just means that each unit is the same as each other unit so it doesn’t matter which one I use, they are all the same.

BUT, only Gold and Silver coins: where the size, weight and purity is known, can serve as money.


Therein lies a tale…

Because an ounce of Gold, or a Pound of Sterling Silver, remains the same over hundreds of years, and retains its size, weight and appearance,  therefore they are a store of value.

The story goes, that an ounce of Gold, will buy a quality suit of clothes from a top tailor on Savile Row in London, England, just as it did a hundred years ago.

This means that the government has to limit its activity because it will run out of money, unless it taxes its people more, and most governments are like Turkeys – they won’t vote for Xmas, by raising taxes on the population, because in democracies, people who raise taxes tend to get voted out of office.

The British Pound Sterling was so-called because the British Crown Royal Mint assayed it and using stamps, that were stamped into the metal, to verify its purity came up wiith the definition of 925 parts per thousand, which gave it its name.

This became the basis of our monetary system. Alongside this money, the British also had a Golden Crown and a Golden Guinea. The Golden Guinea was once,  a one ounce coin of pure Gold, valued at £1.05 (21/- or 21 Shillings) A shilling was 1/20th of a pound.

Of course at a time when 16 ounces of something was a pound, this wasn’t the same for Gold and Silver, as they are measured in Troy ounces which are heavier, than “Avoirdupois” ounces by a factor of 1.225 times, so was the equivalent monetary value at a time when the Silver:Gold ratio was legally defined as 16:1 or 15.5:1 at various times.

Britain left the Gold Standard during the early days of the first World War, to allow the nation to pay its war bills, for war munitions and this allowed it to expand the money supply without causing immediate deflation, or price inflation. America, did well out of it, as Europeans bought many of their materials from the U.S. like grain, and household goods, as well as munitions.

So why do Governments, and their agents, want to steer you away from having real money?  That’s a good question.

If you get real money from your time, talents and energy, you could put your excess earnings into savings, and the government and Banksters would not be able to tax that. In order to pay for their actions, they need to steal your time and your freedom… People who are free from the drudgery of work, have too much time on their hands, and can think. And people who think, are a potential threat to those in power, as they have a tendency to spot the scams being run by governments.

In post WWI Russia, a young economist called Nikolai Dmitryevich Kondratieff produced a report that stated that the economy which tends to work in cycles, has a long-wave cycle of roughly two generations. Robert Beckman a financier during the 1980s, and author of the book “The Downwave” suggested a cycle of 54 years, but this obviously depends on when women begin having their first child. This became known as the “Kondratieff Wave”, and Kondratieff, to counter this cycle, suggested allowing the population to have small businesses like Britain, and other nations

For Lenin and Stalin, this proved too much. Kondratieff, who was tried for treason to the party spent 8 years in jail. While he was in jail, he did further research, and when he was released, he was tried again, and this time was convicted, and sentenced to death by firing squad…

His sentence was carried out that same day.

Both Hitler and Stalin, took gold out of the hands of the citizens, because as the old saw goes: “He who owns the gold, makes the rules.”. So owning Gold gives you “Freedom”.

So, Governments, and their Central Banker paymasters need to restrict the population from using money, because it has limited capability to be taxed. And those on the inside, can’t get YOU, to pay for their pet projects, that many of them, will benefit from, further down the line.

So the new British pound to go back stops those who wish to preserve their wealth, from storing cash at home, out of the Banking System, because periodically, they are forced to return their notes and coins to the Banking system to be replaced by their newer less counterfitable replacements.

Now when you have to replace large sums, the Bankers know how much you are storing out of the system, and if that sum exceeds typically £10,000, they are duty bound to report that to the Government under legislation to prevent money laundering (at least so they say).

In reality, it is about controlling the banking system and the flows of funds into and out of the system, because the government and the bank relies of a functioning banking system to set taxation policy (Govenment debts are owed to the Central Bankers and thus need to know who has the funds)

This new coin therefore, is just part of the ongoing strategy to get everyone into the banking system, (there are currently over 1.5 million people with no Bank account) and to ensure the Banks can make a profit from this, free banking has to go.

You have to ensure that you have a minimum of 10% of your assets held in readily exchangeable assets with “no counterparty risk”. That means Gold and Silver.

Of the two precious metals, Andrew Maguire a precious metals trader has proved conlusively, that the U.S. government’s Bankers (the Fed and its client Bullion Banks) have been manipulated to the detriment of precious metals owners. the ratio historically of price between silver and gold is in the region of 16:1.

During the 1990s, this ratio began to be manipulated, as the US. government, which had used 2.75 BILLION ounces of Treasury Department Silver, during WW2 as part of the Manhattan project, and had to shut down the facility that used that silver in 1992, for 3 years, while they recovered that silver, to sell, because demand was growing (due to widespread industrial uses) and that should have raised the price, and encouraged more companies to find and produce silver, which would have brought the price down again… THAT is how markets are supposed to work – Economics 101 as the Americans might say.PM-Coins

Monopoly is outlawed in most industries, because a monopoly can extract monopoly profits – take it or leave it… And yet we allow our government and its Bankers to ensure that we can only use their monopoly produced money… Is this fair? No!

The only way to beat this monopoly practice, is to purchase precious metals and to keep those under your own control…

The time has arrived.

Don’t forget to like and to post links to this, which is used to educate and inform.

Beware The Ides of March…

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Can You Trust Your Bank

Students of Literature, will recognise the title from the warning given to Julius Ceasar, as epitomised in the Shakespearean play of that name.

It was a warning to the general, to beware, by a soothsayer (who remains nameless). A warning that apparently he ignored. Of course, as the conspirators – the Senators, stabbed at Ceasar, and Marcus Brutus a former long-time friend plunged his knife into the man, Shakespeare’s Ceasar uttered those now immortal words – “Et tu Bruté” (And you Brutus?)

Of course, in the modern era, the last major play, that resembles this drama, is the death of John Fitzgerald Kennedy on November 22nd 1963, as he was brutally slaughtered by a conspiratorial cabal operating in the upper echelons of the power political scene in America.

Who all these conspirators are, has remained largely unspoken… But some people, are doing what should have been done 50+ years ago, by the Dallas Police, before the CIA and the FBI took over the post assassination conspiratorial machinations, to cover up their involvement, and to plant the idea in the public’s mind, that “it was a lone gunman” a Russian Sympathiser, who spent three years in Russia, but who was in receipt of $200 per month from the FBI as an informer, and who received special training by the CIA to learn Russian, before he allegedly dropped out by going to Russia and staying there for three years…

Those invoved in the Conspiracy carefully massaged the images and the Warren Commission headed up by the very man, that Kennedy had fired just a few months earlier as Head of the CIA to ensure the story remained “on message”.

Of course George Herbert Walker Bush, when asked where he was at the time of the shooting, had vague recollections of where he was, despite someone of that name making a call to J. Edgar Hoover’s office – Head of the FBI just hours after the shooting proving he was in a hotel in Dallas. And his recollections apparently varied on subsequent questioning of the same incident, The same George H. W. Bush who went on to be Carter’s head of CIA, and then Vice President, during the 8 years that Ronald Reagan was President, and almost made it to the presidency when President Reagan was shot, by a lone nutter… But the President in true Cowboy hero fashion, survived.

JFK’s brother Robert Kennedy who also later ran for political office also met a sudden death when yet another lone nutter (CIA – MK-Ultra participant?) allegedly shot him at close quarters as he emerged from the hotel kitchen into the glare of waiting reporters, TV cameras and waiting dignatories – and CIA operatives?

Here is the best documentary I’ve seen on this and other subjects…

JFK Jr., had his 3rd birthday just three days after his father’s death, and after growing up and becoming by, all accounts, an honourable man, handsome, suave, considerate and latterly a pilot and publisher of a magazine called “George” – Was this a clue to the mystery surrounding his father’s demise?Why George?

And of course, John F Kennedy Junior ALSO met an untimely demise, when his plane came down late in the evening, as his plane disappeared off his flight path and plunged into the Atlantic, just 1 minute after he called in to the Martha’s Vineyard Airport, to say he was at 2,500 feet and ready to descend to the airport… But he never made it, falling out of the sky almost vertically just 60 seconds later… Meanwhile, George Bush Junior, for the three days, was nowhere to be found… Hmmmm… “Curiouser, and Curiouser”…cried Alice…

You can get a better description of events here…

So what does this have to do with the Ides of March?

Well, as President Trump has already made known to the world, some of the things he wants to do is to “Drain the swamp”, and began the process, though CIA leaks have been made to discredit him, but even the MSM have had to eat some of their words. However, many things seem to be happening that suggests he won’t see out his full-term – one way or another…

Already people are setting Trump up for a fall… Here’s how Zero-Hedge put it

Roberto Gualtieri, chairman of the European Parliament’s economic and monetary affairs committee, also criticized Trump. “Some first concrete confirmations of a new more unilateral policy stance by the new U.S. administration, including on sensitive financial markets regulatory issues, raise concerns and require both thorough reflection and action from the EU side,” he told the committee.

Meanwhile, Draghi deflected accusations lobbed at him over the weekend by German finmin Schauble, who said not Germany, but the ECB and Mario Draghi, are responsible for the undervaluation of the euro:

And SGTReport who holds views similar to my own, regarding the economy,  believes  much the same with regard to Trump’s likely outcome, as those behind the scenes are attempting to undermine, discredit, or if they can’t impeach him, probably develop a plan to slay him, when they produced this video…


And of course #Pizzagate is just another FAKE News story…

Err.. Maybe.

And of course, it was Trump and those Russian hackers who stole the election… Except it wasn’t…


BUT, at least Trump is fighting back, and so are the Americans…

Those evil Bankers, Oil-men, Military Corporate CEOs and multi-million share-holders, and those working for them in the secretive security organisations – all 16 of them, are now going to have their teeth pulled as the fight-back begins…As Ron Paul, that arch-enemy of the Federal Reserve has already had his £0.02 worth..

So, if you’re in the markets, now might be prudent to lower your risk somewhat… Events have a habit of coming out of the blue, and given recent rises to bubble territory… and Cliff High’s, Jim Rickards’ and Bill Bonner’s and JIm Willie’s and Peter Schiff’s, David Morgan’s and Dr. Paul Craig Robert’s warnings a pull-back is long overdue.


This is an important adjunct to the above piece, as events come into focus:

The 15th March (Ides) is the day that Netherlands goes to the polls to elect a new leader. One in which the populist Geert Wilders is steadily making progress in the polls and is looking increasingly likely to win. BUT as Turkey and the Dutch go head to head over the latest political intrigue, will this mean Wilders gets more of the sympathetic vote, against the population concerned about the (as they see it) invasion of Islamists guaranteeing him the  vote?

The second concerning thing is the reaching of the $20 Trillion debt ceiling in the U.S. on that date, while also the Federal Reserve on that day too will decide whether to raise interest rates for just the 3rd time in 10 years.

And, in the UK, after the House of Commons rejected the amendment voted for by the House of Lords, this frees the PM’s hands to announce the formal Brexit process.

And finally, Clif High – researcher, has been announcing over the last two months that March onwards is likely to be tumultuous, and after all that, I found this…(below)

Anyone who has been reading this blog for any length of time, will know my feelings on Precious metals, and this just threw petrol on the bonfire.





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Lazy Sunday Afternoon… How The Corporataucracy is Losing Its Grip

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It’s late Sunday, 26th February, and the oligarchy is fuming…

The large Corporate behemoths are concerned, because the Free Media – that’s the media, that doesn’t have corporate sponsorship, or control by the legacy media channels, are winning, and the legacy media are losing their power to control us, and that’s really pissing them off..

The old News media channels, the main-stream media, such as here in the UK – BBC, and ITN, and the 6 major U.S. news channels, are pissed off, because the so-called FAKE News channels, are in reality more in tune with what is really going on in the world, than the mainstream media channels would have you think.

For example:

Did you know that last year, President Obama and Secretary of State, John Kerry, BOTH visited Antarctica? Now why is is that news? And if not, WHY not?

So, what was the Presidential interest in Antarctica all of a sudden? Is it because back in 1512, Turkish Admiral Piri-Reis, produced a map of Antarctica, which accurately showed the land-mass including rivers and lakes under the 1 mile deep sheet of ice? Did, President Obama, want to check it out for himself – just to be sure?

Or was it because back in 1946/7 the U.S. had Operation High-jump, which was organised by Rear Admiral Richard E. Byrd, Jr., and led by Rear Admiral Richard H. Cruzen, USN, Commanding Officer, Task Force 68.

Operation High-jump commenced 26 August 1946 and ended in late February 1947. Task Force 68 included 4,700 men, 13 ships, and 33 aircraft. Operation High-jump’s primary mission was allegedly, to establish the Antarctic research base Little America IV.

High-jump’s objectives, according to the U.S. Navy report of the operation, were:

Training personnel and testing equipment in frigid conditions;
Consolidating and extending the United States’ sovereignty over the largest practicable area of the Antarctic continent (even though this was publicly denied as a goal even before the expedition ended);
Determining the feasibility of establishing, maintaining, and utilizing bases in the Antarctic and investigating possible base sites;
Developing techniques for establishing, maintaining, and utilizing air bases on ice, with particular attention to later applicability of such techniques to operations in interior Greenland, where conditions are comparable to those in the Antarctic;
Amplifying existing stores of knowledge of electromagnetic, geological, geographic, hydrographic, and meteorological propagation conditions in the area;
Supplementary objectives of the Nanook expedition (a smaller equivalent conducted off eastern Greenland). {}

However, what was the real intention of this task force? According to some reports, and at least one guarded comment by Admiral Byrd, the U.S. Task Force, was involved in a military expedition, and ultimately involved in a battle… exactly 70 years ago today.

This particular operation returned early after only two months, allegedly after having a battle with Unidentified Flying and Submersible Objects, which cost this particular task force several ships, men and aircraft.

Was this the first interstellar battle? Or where these flying machines a legacy of work done by German Researchers, who had also allegedly had contact with extra-terrestrials and fled to the Antarctic region to continue their research? This Russian video (with English sub-titles) suggests the former…

So, if the President of the U.S.A goes to Antarctica, via a stop-over in Argentina, why did this not make the evening news? And for the Secretary of State?

It has been stated by some in the Financial elite, that they fear what is coming, and that if they could, they would get “Off Planet”. In fact so many have sought hiding places in far away places such as in New Zealand, or in the Argentinian Andes. That it has driven up land and farm prices. They also have been buying gold, silver and bitcoin, in ever larger quantities, pushing prices up, and stashing large sums in currency in an attempt to minimize the worst affects of what is to come.  Some of these “preppers” have even bought space in what used to be nuclear facilities in what are known as DUMB bases (Deep Underground Military Bases) The Russians, have also allegedly provided sufficient space underground for their whole population, but the U.S. has rather selfishly, only provided sufficient space for approximately 200,000, of its population – those senior military, political and financial elites and their families. In towns near these bases, demand for essentials has sky-rocketed.

But what if any of the above is the reality, and we have been fed a lie, for 70 years, that we are alone in the Galaxy, and that the July 1947 incident in Roswell New Mexico, which was reported originally as a UFO, before it was retracted, was in fact a real inter-stellar craft (or two) that crashed and this was retrieved, along with several alien bodies?


We have been told it never happened? Yet the officer involved in the cover-up confided in retirement, to his son, that it really was a cover up and that it really was an extra-terrestrial craft that crashed, and elements of it were taken to PhD students in several universities to examine, in attempts to reverse engineer the technology…

What if the post WWII technological revolution that brought about the Integrated Circuit, the Ceramic silicon wafer that made the PC and smart-phone revolutions that took place 50 or so years later possible, but were in reality reverse engineered technology from alien space-craft?

What would widespread acceptance of this fact mean for established religions when their whole edifice is placed on the crucible of scientific research and found wanting? What will happen to people if the Vatican, or the Mullahs in the middle-east have to re-design their religious texts to explain the unexplainable?

We can but imagine.

But in this WooWoo world, where the previously unscientific paradigms, are over-turned as the implications of this sink in…we could see this world turned upside down, and its finances along with it

Nikola Tesla, dreamed of a world where free energy could be distributed via high-towers such as the Wardencliffe Tower, that was unintentionally funded by J.P Morgan, until he realised what Tesla was upto and had it torn down.  And extra-terrestrial space-craft, will obviously require another paradigm shift, as our oil based economy suffers its own implosion, and the financiers that funded the industry along with it…  After all… if these beings are travelling distances measured in light-years, they aren’t using rockets or burning fossil fuels…  So the oil coal and nuclear industries have much to lose from this paradigm shift…

So… get with the program…

Prepare for the change – Disclosure.

Why Bitcoin could go to $1,000,000+

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Time to get your Bitcoin, Gold and Silver?

Ever since I first heard of Bitcoin, my moods have oscillated with emotional highs and lows between optimism, and pessimism. I got involved about thirty months ago, mostly out of mere curiosity.  However, I first learned of Bitcoin, about 7 years ago, and perhaps because back then, there was a lot of hype, I was highly suspicious of it. I asked myself… What was this new technology? What are its implications? What are its strengths or weaknesses? Will it succeed?

Like you I had so many questions. But I didn’t know enough to commit to it.

However, I had some experience of cryptographics when, as a former software developer, early in my studies, I wrote cryptography software using a simple alphabetic replacement system. For those not familiar with this, it was the simplest form, which involves letter substitution.

Let’s take the Alphabet.



As you can see from the above, you can shift each letter a number of times. In the above example from A to G, from B to H, etc. etc., to encrypt or decrypt the text.

As long as you know the shift count, you can simply unscramble the text. This however would be laughed at by any modern cryptographer, worth their salt. We know which letters in the English language are used most frequently, so having a few guesses at the piece of text would quickly, reveal the key (the number of letters shifted – 6 in the above example)

During the second world war, the Germans of course used two characters to denote a character in their encrypted messages, with random coded substitution, and it wasn’t until the British managed to get hold of an Enigma machine from a captured U-boat, to send to Bletchley Park where they worked on the decryption that they were finally able to decrypt the messages, and listen in on German U-boat communications, so helping bring the war to a speedier close. And cryptography is at the heart of global communication, and Bitcoins and other Alt-Coins. It is also at the heart of Apple’s attempts to restrict U.S. authorities from gaining information from devices, that are encrypted, by fighting a court decision forcing it to build software for the authorities to allow access – Apple of course designed its software because of increasing concern at the intrusive political and authoritarian institutions of all Governments, some of whom appear to have carte-blanche access to whatever communication traverses the globe – at least according to Edward Snowden.

Lately however, I have been doing further research into Crypto-Currencies, and both the theory and the practice.

What fired my enthusiasm for this research was listening to an interview, between a sceptic, and an enthusiast.

As a result, I began looking at a number of Web-sites, and following up on this conversation. To see what’s happening in the Bitcoin and crypto-currency space. After much thought, and research, I realised that there are at least 7 Network Effects which might lead to wider acceptance:

1. Speculation –

People buying to make a fast buck. This drove early adoption, taking the price to almost $1200 at one point.

2. Merchants –

Companies accepting it for goods, simply because people hold them, and they are convertible into fiat-currency or money at known rates. In the world there are over 100,000 merchants already accepting the coins, including major providers such as Microsoft, and Target in the U.S..

3. Consumers –

These are using it because merchants are accepting it, and they are now doing so in ways that allow consumers to gain discounts of upto 35%, even on web-sites such as Amazon.

4. Miners –

There are a number of crypto-currency miners, with computing power approaching 1 Exahash, which is about the equivalent of 10,000 of the top 5 supercomputers in the world

5. Developers –

These will use the above processing power to build out the infrastructure, to produce software that is more secure than all the others and to build functionality in the hope of receiving Bitcoins or Fiat.

6. Financialisation –

The Banks and CFTC have already discussed using the Bitcoin Network and blockchain technology for transfer of financial instruments denoted in Bitcoin. And one of Max Keiser’s former regulars, decided to invest heavily in building out the technology for this process almost eliminating Brokers and brokerage fees.

7. World Reserve Currency –

IF, or rather, WHEN the US. Dollar crashes, then people will hold their reserves in an alternative or alternatives. Gold and Silver are obvious candidates, but also increasingly Bitcoin crypto-currency, is a candidate rather than some other Fiat currency, because of the current currency wars, which could turn into trade wars, and then hot wars..

This is still to happen but, the instability in the Middle-East and around Africa, is a sign of things to come.

If the price of Bitcoin, begins to rise towards, four, five, then six figures, more and more people will hold their reserves in Bitcoin, and other fiat currencies will recede in value – including other currencies such as: British Pounds, Euros, Japanese Yen et-al..

This will accelerate the acceptance and expand the wider use of crypto-currencies in general, and Bitcoin in particular. The rise of Bitcoin, and the fall of the U.S. Dollar therefore, will be as much an opinion of the dollar, as it is of Bitcoin

So, as more and more of these people and organisations, developers, merchants, financial organisations, miners and finally those who hold their nation’s reserves increase their use of Bitcoin, then the value will explode exponentially, and the price speculated in the header will be a distinct possibility.

But, the alternatives to Bitcoin – Alt-coins – and of course Gold and Silver may take up some of that slack. Gold appears to be in increasing demand, at least amongst 4 particular countries. India, China, Russia, and Turkey alone out of the world’s 200+ nations, currently (according to Mike Maloney quoting a Zerohedge article on 3/3/2016) are already consuming the entire planetary output of gold – and then some. The excess demand is currently being met by Western Central Banks reserves.

Canada which has suffered in recent months as the oil price has tanked, perhaps made pledges to its people, that were based – at least in part – on an expected almost permanent high oil price, so the fall to circa $30/bbl, and subsequent rise to around $54/bbl is causing problems for those states with Tar-sand production, which is a high production cost energy item, and thus costs may already be exceeding revenue from such operations. Those modest Canadian Gold reserves were apparently sold off in one month or less. The reserves stood at a mere 1.7 tonnes according to February 2016 reports, but by Feb 29th, the remainder was just 77 ounces, which is a pitiful amount. This is down from 1,000 tonnes that the Canadian Central Bank reported in 1965, but since the end of the Bretton Woods agreement (15/8/1971) these have been replaced by U.S. Dollars in the main. It took Canada, 20 years from 1965 to reduce those reserves by 50%, and the last 30years to rid themselves of the rest of this Keynesian Barbarous relic. Which begs the question… What will the Canadian Government use for currency/money, when the dollar collapse occurs?

But what might trigger this Tsunami? Anyone who is not a Keynesian, has to study – observe – what happens in the real world. Economics is one of those dry dusty subjects given to study by essentially – Nerds – I count myself amongst them. The original economists: Adam Smith, John Gresham, Ricardo, and the other early economists, studied markets and what happened in them. They then formulated ideas based on those observations.

But since the dawn of the Federal Reserve, and the end of WWI, economists have been looking for ways to manipulate the economy to serve politicians, who as the old saying goes – “Don’t want it to happen on my watch.” IT, being a recession or a depression.

But what causes depressions? Think about it for a second. A new idea comes along. Lots of people begin to provide that service or product. Lots of small businesses are built. Over time, these small businesses get swallowed up by competition, over decades ultimately half a dozen huge corporations provide that product or service, freeing up people to do other things – (unemployment) and concentrating the industry into a few corporate hands.

When this happens, the unemployed inventive ones with access to capital invent new products or services, to replace, or make better what went before. Perhaps even to the point where what went before, gets replaced almost completely – such as cars replacing trains, which replaced horses and canals. But for the additional products, you need additional consumers, not hundreds of millions, retiring, or on the verge of retirement, looking to save, rather than spend.

Since the end of WWII, the computer has gone through several metamorphoses – from Mainframe, to mini-computer, to PC, to Laptop, to smartphone and tablet computer. They each in their turn improved on previous designs, made them smaller, more productive, cheaper and widely available due to cost reductions.

But for industry to grow (so they can grow the share price) they need new products, new markets, or lower costs, and it is this last item, that means doing either more with the same, or the same with less that is causing the problem… As that means fewer workers. We are at one of those inflexion points. Apple, and Samsung, Sony and just a few others in China and the Far-East, now dominate the smartphone and tablet industry. HP, IBM and other American behemoths have shrunk or got out of the computer business altogether. Britain’s Computer industry has gone from a handful to one, producing designs for chips in smartphones, and tablets (but also increasingly servers for server farms).

The capital sitting in corporate bank accounts should be going into research, but research can take years to produce anything, and corporate execs need to deliver share price rises today, tomorrow, next week, next month, and at the end of the financial year. Not maybe, in three years time if the research proves fruitful. Much easier to buy up a new corporation that has already proved up the technology, and can be tacked on to existing business.

And so to force companies and large holders of capital to invest, we have the prospect and reality of NIRP – Negative Interest Rates Policy – already in place in 3 countries in Europe: Switzerland, Sweden, and Denmark. The ECB and Japan too is trying them, but none of them appear to be working to the extent they would like. In Switzerland, the Tax collecting service even told its taxpayers not to pay up-front, so that the money held on deposit at the banks wouldn’t be “charged”. This is monetary madness. Anyone with 6, 7 or 8 figures in a bank account should be worried. And those living from week to week, or month to month, will need to grow their income rapidly as the dollar declines.

JP Morgan (according to Satyajit Das, finance expert and author of “A Banquet of Consequences”) has speculated – sorry modelled – that -3% (negative 3%) might be necessary for the dollar. But with Bank notes, people can just take that cash out of the bank and keep it under the mattress so to speak. So Central Banks want to get rid of banknotes, and that is why they are starting with large denomination notes – the €500 note, the $100 bill et-al.

India has edged towards this by eliminating the 1,000 and 500 rupee notes, which in a country that still largely uses cash for transactions, and hundreds of millions still don’t have a bank account. This has led to mass demonstrations and mass hysteria. It may lead to social unrest as people rebel against this edict.

The Bankers use euphemisms, and downright lies to attempt to achieve this, but the moment that the U.S. does that, all those dollar bills overseas will return to U.S. shores, and the trickle of deals away from the dollar – the 30 countries that now have bilateral trade deals with China, Russia, India, and the middle-east, for oil, and commodities outside of the dollar, will become a flood – fleeing from the dollar. To what?

We can but speculate, but to my mind, Bitcoin will be one of them, and of course Gold and Silver. Of course, we may yet see governments attempt to outlaw the ownership of Bitcoin, Gold or Silver, just as was tried once before in 1933. THAT moment may arrive far sooner than many think.

Bitcoin – are there any drawbacks? What are the Risks? What if…?

The total number of Bitcoins is limited to 21,000,000,  so I hear, which sounds a lot, until you realise how many transactions there are in the world, and how much economic value people have added to the planet over the centuries. Money therefore is used to value those objects – Buildings, Corporations, and the time value of Labour, to all the products and services we take for granted in our modern world. So a modern money must be the measure we use to assign our value to these. IF therefore, Central Banks can just conjure up currency out of their printing presses, or computers, they are esentially stealing value to be created out of human labour. Whether that is a corporation that took 50 years to build, or it is someone’s work, the value of the currency itself therefore, should also reflect its time value to produce. THAT is why both Gold and Silver served our purposes so well over the millennia.

Think of the worldwide number of large corporations, sky-scrapers, huge mines, roads, motorways, bridges and tunnels built since the dawn of the Industrial age, together with their cost in materials, time, energy, and lives lost. That value runs into the hundreds or even thousands of trillions of U.S. dollars.

$200,000,000,000,000 – is reputedly, the total currency debt of the world – divided by 21,000,000 Bitcoins is 9,523,809.5238095 per Bitcoin, and that is in dollars alone.

This assumes that all other currencies go to zero, and we only use Bitcoin for our financial transactions.

Which means theoretically, it could go higher, when you add in Pounds, Yen, Euros, Rubles, Yuan, Dinar, Riyahls etc. etc.

Of course this is perhaps unrealistic, but not outside the bounds of possibility.

We also need to consider what are the pitfalls.

As Bitcoin is more widely adopted, over time there will be inevitable losses – people storing their coins on a smart-phone or flash-drive and losing it, or not backing it up, or finding out that electronic storage and strong magnets are not a good mix, or someone dying with their coins held in a smartphone, that no-one else knows about, which gets wiped and re-sold on, or given to a partner, relative or someone, who has no real interest in such electronic coins. There will be other ways that currency could be lost, so shrinking the pool of available coins, which might also lead people to not adopting them, out of fear of loss. There are those who speculate the earth could receive an Electro-Magnetic Pulse (EMP) which could lead to a major fault in the global telecomms infrastructure, killing digital coins – but with the Banks and Governments so keen to rid the world of ALL paper currencies, there is little choice except for those stand-bys of the last 5 millennia – Gold, Silver and Bronze.

Could Bitcoin go higher? Will it?

Could Bitcoin really go higher than the $1,000,000 speculated on? These are unknowns. The theoretical maximum of 21 million coins assumes that all the coins are mined, but which according to Trace Mayer, Bitcoin Expert, would take upto 140 years, as the mining rate halves every 4 years. The first such halving was in 2013 – Did this cause a price spike? (Basic law of Supply and Demand?) We don’t know for sure, but possibly; the next such halving is next year in 2017. It is possible that this time, people will front run it this time, to try to maximise their positions ahead of the reduction causing another price spike.

As I have said several times, there are about 80 different crypto-currencies. I hold over 10, and receive daily interest into my crypto-currency accounts – as can you (See below). I also have an app on my smartphone, in which I have deposited some of these coins to spend, with a QR Scan Code to make using them easier, just like I might with ApplePay(®) or the PayPal App and it is possible that I will be able to do this with all the others shortly.

There are already ways to exchange these different crypto-currencies, on exchange sites (listed below)

So, now do you think it is time to maybe check out this new currency system?

Where do I get Bitcoin, or these crypto-currencies?

Bitcoin, is available in so many places now it is almost impossible to recommend one or two sites over others, but the one site I do recommend, mostly because they set-up a number of crypto-currency [Alt-coin] accounts, simultaneously, for the price of an e-mail address, and you receive FREE daily deposits into them – albeit very small sums to begin with, but with loyalty bonuses, increasing with time and other ways to improve deposits. For those keen to promote or evangelise the site, additional bonuses are given in increasing amounts for more referrals.

You can earn upto 10 crypto-currencies, including Bitcoin, and Litecoin FREE at…, for the price of an e-mail address. Backing both horses in a two horse race may seem like wasting money or effort, but it depends on your view of risk…and the potential rewards. And in investing circles, NOT losing money is the first rule to financial security.

You can buy Gold and Silver with your crypto-currencies at:   or with Fiat at  or At Liberty Silver, because it is based in Estonia, which does not charge V.A.T. on silver coins, as long as you purchase and arrange collection from their site (done via a courier) you can still legally buy your coins VAT free.

And you can trade between different crypto-currencies here at: or at or even learn how to trade from your fiat to BTC here